Nepal नेपाल [neˈpal], officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. With an area of 147,516 square kilometers (56,956 sq mi) and a population of approximately 28 million, Nepal is the world’s 93rd largest country by landmass and the 41st most populous country. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People’s Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India. Specifically, the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, and Sikkim border Nepal, while across the Himalayas lies the Tibetan Autonomous Region. Kathmandu is the nation’s capital and largest metropolis.
Nepal has a rich geography. The mountainous north has eight of the world’s ten tallest mountains, including the highest point on Earth, Mount Everest (8,848.86m), called Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा) in Nepali. It contains more than 240 peaks over 20,000 ft. (6,096 m) above sea level. The fertile and humid south is heavily urbanized.
Hinduism is practiced by about 81% of Nepalese, making it the country with the highest percentage of Hindu followers; Buddhism is linked historically with Nepal and is practiced by 9%, Islam by 4.4%, Kirat 3%, Christianity 1.4%, and animism 0.4%.
- 3% Hinduism
- 4% Islam
- 9% Buddhism
- 1% Kirant
- 4% Christianity
- 5% Prakriti
- 3% Others
Ethnic groups (2011)
- 6% Chhetri
- 2% Bahun
- 1% Magar
- 6% Tharu
- 8% Tamang
- 5% Newar
- 8% Kami
- 4% Musalman
- 4% Yadav
- 3% Rai
- 2% Gurung
- 8% Damai/Dholi
- 6% Thakuri
- 5% Limbu
- 4% Sarki
- 9% Others
A monarchy throughout most of its history, Nepal was ruled by the Shah dynasty of kings from 1768, when Prithvi Narayan Shah unified its many small kingdoms. However, a decade-long Civil War by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties led to the 12-point agreement of 22 November 2005. The ensuing elections for the constituent assembly on 28 May 2008 overwhelmingly favored the abolishment of the monarchy and the establishment of a federal multiparty representative democratic republic.
Nepal occupying only 0.1% of the total landmass of the earth is home to:
- 2% of all the flowering plants in the world
- 8% of the world’s population of birds (more than 848 species)
- 4% of mammals on earth
- 11 of the world’s 15 families of butterflies (more than 500 species)
- 600 indigenous plant families
- 319 species of exotic orchids
- Water (%) 2.8
Ares: 147,516 km² / (56,956 sq. mi)
Location: Situated between China in the north and India in the south, east, and west
Population: 28.61 million (2019)
Time zone: UTC+05:45
People: Nepal has more than 101 ethnic groups and 92 spoken languages.
Language: Nepali is the national language; travel trade people understand and speak English as well.
Religion: Nepal is a secular state with a predominance of Hindu and Buddhist populations.
Currency: Nepalese Rupee (NPR) (approximately US$ 1 equals Rs.110 as per 2021)
Political System: Federal Democratic Republic
Calling code: +977
- Winter: December-February
- Spring: March-May
- Summer: June-August
- Autumn: September-November.
- Monsoon: June till mid-September
Nepal has five climatic zones, broadly corresponding to the altitudes. The tropical and subtropical zones lie below 1,200 meters (3,937 ft.), the temperate zone 1,200 to 2,400 meters (3,937 to 7,874 ft.), the cold zone 2,400 to 3,600 meters (7,874 to 11,811 ft.), the subarctic zone 3,600 to 4,400 meters (11,811 to 14,436 ft.), and the Arctic zone above 4,400 meters (14,436 ft.)